Plasmodium falciparum sporozoite (PfSPZ) direct venous inoculation (DVI) using cryopreserved, infectious PfSPZ (PfSPZ Challenge [Sanaria, Rockville, Maryland]) is an established controlled human malaria infection model. However, to evaluate new chemical entities with potential blood-stage activity, more detailed data are needed on safety, tolerability, and parasite clearance kinetics for DVI of PfSPZ Challenge with established schizonticidal antimalarial drugs. This open-label, phase Ib study enrolled 16 malaria-naïve healthy adults in two cohorts (eight per cohort). Following DVI of 3,200 PfSPZ (NF54 strain), parasitemia was assessed by quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) from day 7. The approved antimalarial artemether-lumefantrine was administered at a qPCR-defined target parasitemia of ≥ 5,000 parasites/mL of blood. The intervention was generally well tolerated, with two grade 3 adverse events of neutropenia, and no serious adverse events. All 16 participants developed parasitemia after a mean of 9.7 days (95% CI 9.1-10.4) and a mean parasitemia level of 511 parasites/mL (95% CI 369-709). The median time to reach ≥ 5,000 parasites/mL was 11.5 days (95% CI 10.4-12.4; Kaplan-Meier), at that point the geometric mean (GM) parasitemia was 15,530 parasites/mL (95% CI 10,268-23,488). Artemether-lumefantrine was initiated at a GM of 12.1 days (95% CI 11.5-12.7), and a GM parasitemia of 6,101 parasites/mL (1,587-23,450). Mean parasite clearance time was 1.3 days (95% CI 0.9-2.1) and the mean log10 parasite reduction ratio over 48 hours was 3.6 (95% CI 3.4-3.7). This study supports the safety, tolerability, and feasibility of PfSPZ Challenge by DVI for evaluating the blood-stage activity of candidate antimalarial drugs.
- Antimalarials/adverse effects
- Artemether, Lumefantrine Drug Combination/adverse effects
- Artemether/therapeutic use
- Malaria/drug therapy
- Parasitemia/drug therapy
- Plasmodium falciparum