SARS-CoV-2 variants have continuously emerged in the face of effective vaccines. Reduced neutralization against variants raises questions as to whether other antibody functions are similarly compromised, or if they might compensate for lost neutralization activity. Here, the breadth and potency of antibody recognition and effector function is surveyed following either infection or vaccination. Considering pregnant women as a model cohort with higher risk of severe illness and death, we observe similar binding and functional breadth for healthy and immunologically vulnerable populations, but considerably greater functional antibody breadth and potency across variants associated with vaccination. In contrast, greater antibody functional activity targeting the endemic coronavirus OC43 is noted among convalescent individuals, illustrating a dichotomy in recognition between close and distant human coronavirus strains associated with exposure history. This analysis of antibody functions suggests the differential potential for antibody effector functions to contribute to protecting vaccinated and convalescent subjects as novel variants continue to evolve.
- COVID-19 Vaccines
- Vulnerable Populations
- COVID-19/prevention & control
- Pregnancy Complications, Infectious