BACKGROUND: Men who have sex with men (MSM), in particular HIV-infected MSM, are at increased risk for diseases related to human papilloma virus (HPV). Our goal was to assess the effect of HIV status on the presence of type-specific antibodies against seven high-risk HPV types in HPV-unvaccinated MSM. Moreover, we compared determinants of HPV seropositivity between HIV-negative and HIV-infected MSM.
METHODS: MSM ≥18 years of age were recruited from the Amsterdam Cohort Studies, a sexually transmitted infection clinic, and an HIV-treatment center in Amsterdam, the Netherlands. Participants completed a risk-factor questionnaire; serum samples were analyzed using a fluorescent bead-based multiplex assay.
RESULTS: MSM (n = 795) were recruited in 2010 to 2011; 758 MSM were included in this analysis. Median age was 40.1 years (interquartile range 34.8-47.5) and 308 MSM (40.6%) were HIV-infected. Seroprevalence of HPV-16 was 37.1% in HIV-negative and 62.7% in HIV-infected MSM (P < 0.001); seroprevalence of HPV-18 was 29.1% in HIV-negative MSM and 42.5% in HIV-infected MSM (P < 0.001). Similar patterns of seroprevalence were observed for HPV types 31, 33, 45, 52, and 58. In multivariable analyses, HPV seropositivity was associated with HIV infection [adjusted OR = 2.1; 95% confidence interval, 1.6-2.6]. In multivariable analyses stratified by HIV status, increasing age and number of lifetime male sex partners were significantly associated with HPV seropositivity in HIV-negative, but not HIV-infected MSM.
CONCLUSIONS: Seroprevalence of high-risk HPV types is high among unvaccinated MSM.
IMPACT: HIV infection is a strong and independent determinant for HPV seropositivity, which we hypothesize is because of increased persistence of HPV infection in HIV-infected MSM.
- HIV Infections/epidemiology
- Homosexuality, Male/statistics & numerical data
- Middle Aged
- Papillomaviridae/isolation & purification
- Papillomavirus Infections/epidemiology
- Risk Factors
- Seroepidemiologic Studies