WHO currently recommends three vaccinations against hepatitis B to provide optimal protection against infection and carriage. However, immunological theory and mathematical modelling suggest that similar protection could be induced with two doses, and trials among adolescents and adults have shown comparable rates for both primary seroprotection and geometric mean titres following vaccination. We determined vaccine efficacy among 60 children who only received two doses of hepatitis B vaccine as infants and among 463 children who had received three doses after 4-7 years of follow-up. Vaccine efficacy among the two-dose group was 86.3% against anti-HBc positivity (infection) and 92.3% against HBsAg positivity (carriage), which was similar to the vaccine efficacy found among the participants who had received three doses. To confirm this comparable vaccine efficacy a randomised controlled non-inferiority trial with long-term follow-up is needed.
- Child, Preschool
- Dose-Response Relationship, Immunologic
- Hepatitis B/prevention & control
- Hepatitis B Vaccines/administration & dosage
- Infant, Newborn