Spatiotemporal distribution of dengue and chikungunya in the Hindu Kush Himalayan region: A Systematic Review

Parbati Phuyal, Isabelle Marie Kramer, Doris Klingelhöfer, Ulrich Kuch, Axel Madeburg, David A Groneberg, Edwin Wouters, Meghnath Dhimal, Ruth Müller

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The risk of increasing dengue (DEN) and chikungunya (CHIK) epidemics impacts 240 million people, health systems, and the economy in the Hindu Kush Himalayan (HKH) region. The aim of this systematic review is to monitor trends in the distribution and spread of DEN/CHIK over time and geographically for future reliable vector and disease control in the HKH region. We conducted a systematic review of the literature on the spatiotemporal distribution of DEN/CHIK in HKH published up to 23 January 2020, following Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analysis (PRISMA) guidelines. In total, we found 61 articles that focused on the spatial and temporal distribution of 72,715 DEN and 2334 CHIK cases in the HKH region from 1951 to 2020. DEN incidence occurs in seven HKH countries, i.e., India, Nepal, Bhutan, Pakistan, Bangladesh, Afghanistan, and Myanmar, and CHIK occurs in four HKH countries, i.e., India, Nepal, Bhutan, and Myanmar, out of eight HKH countries. DEN is highly seasonal and starts with the onset of the monsoon (July in India and June in Nepal) and with the onset of spring (May in Bhutan) and peaks in the postmonsoon season (September to November). This current trend of increasing numbers of both diseases in many countries of the HKH region requires coordination of response efforts to prevent and control the future expansion of those vector-borne diseases to nonendemic areas, across national borders.

Original languageEnglish
Article number6656
JournalInternational Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
Issue number18
Number of pages18
Publication statusPublished - 2020


  • Chikungunya Fever/epidemiology
  • Chikungunya virus
  • Dengue Virus
  • Dengue/epidemiology
  • Humans
  • Public Health
  • Spatio-Temporal Analysis


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