The ecophysiological plasticity of Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus concerning overwintering in cooler ecoregions is driven by local climate and acclimation capacity

Isabelle Marie Kramer, Marie Pfeiffer, Oliver Steffens, Friederike Schneider, Viviane Gerger, Parbati Phuyal, Markus Braun, Axel Magdeburg, Bodo Ahrens, David A. Groneberg, Ulrich Kuch, Meghnath Dhimal, Ruth Mueller

Research output: Contribution to journalA1: Web of Science-article

Abstract

Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus transmit diseases such as dengue, and are of major public health concern. Driven by climate change and global trade/travel both species have recently spread to new tropic/subtropic regions and Ae. albopictus also to temperate ecoregions. The capacity of both species to adapt to new environments depends on their ecophysiological plasticity, which is the width of functional niches where a species can survive. Mechanistic distribution models often neglect to incorporate ecophysiological plasticity especially in regards to overwintering capacity in cooler habitats. To portray the ecophysiological plasticity concerning overwintering capability, we conducted temperature experiments with multiple populations of both species originating from an altitudinal gradient in South Asia and tested as follows: the cold tolerance of eggs (& minus;2 degrees C-8 days and & minus; 6 degrees C-2 days) without and with an experimental winter onset (acclimation: 10 degrees C-60 days), differences between a South Asian and a European Ae. albopictus population and the temperature response in life cycles (13 degrees C, 18 degrees C, 23 degrees C, 28 degrees C). Ecophysiological plasticity in overwintering capacity in Ae. aegypti is high in populations originating from low altitude and in Ae. albopictus populations from high altitude. Overall, ecophysiological plasticity is higher in Ae. albopictus compared to Ae. aegypti. In both species acclimation and in Ae. albopictus temperate continental origin had a huge positive effect on survival. Our results indicate that future mechanistic prediction models can include data on winter survivorship of both, tropic and subtropic Ae. aegypti, whereas for Ae. albopictus this depends on the respective temperate, tropical region the model is focusing on. Future research should address cold tolerance in multiple populations worldwide to evaluate the full potential of the ecophysiological plasticity in the two species. Furthermore, we found that Ae. aegypti can survive winter cold especially when acclimated and will probably further spread to colder ecoregions driven by climate change.

(c) 2021 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

albopictus compared to Ae. aegypti. In both species acclimation and in Ae. albopictus temperate continental origin had a huge positive effect on survival. Our results indicate that future mechanistic prediction models can include data on winter survivorship of both, tropic and subtropic Ae. aegypti, whereas for Ae. albopictus this depends on the respective temperate, tropical region the model is focusing on. Future research should address cold tolerance in multiple populations worldwide to evaluate the full potential of the ecophysiological plasticity in the two species. Furthermore, we found that Ae. aegypti can survive winter cold especially when acclimated and will probably further spread to colder ecoregions

Original languageEnglish
Article number146128
JournalScience of the Total Environment
Volume778
Number of pages11
ISSN0048-9697
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2021

Keywords

  • Cold tolerance
  • Overwintering capacity
  • Winter survival
  • Distribution limits
  • Invasion biology
  • Climate change
  • DIPTERA-CULICIDAE
  • DROSOPHILA-MELANOGASTER
  • GEOGRAPHIC ORIGIN
  • TEMPERATURE
  • EGGS
  • FECUNDITY
  • SURVIVAL
  • DIAPAUSE
  • MOSQUITO
  • SURVIVORSHIP

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