BACKGROUND: Our aim was to compare the 12-month incidence and clearance of oral high-risk HPV infection between HIV-infected men who have sex with men (MSM) and HIV-negative MSM.
METHODS: MSM aged 18 years or older were recruited in Amsterdam, the Netherlands. Questionnaire data and oral-rinse and gargle samples were collected at baseline, and after 6 and 12 months. HPV DNA was genotyped using the SPF10-PCR & DEIA-LiPA25 system (version 1). Determinants of oral HPV incidence and clearance were explored using Cox and logistic regression analyses respectively.
RESULTS: 433 HIV-negative and 290 HIV-infected MSM were included in these analyses. The median follow-up time per participant was 12 months (range 3-15). During follow-up, 114 incident oral high-risk HPV infections were observed. The incidence rate of HPV-16 was 3.5/1000 person-months (PM) in HIV-infected and 0.9/1000 PM in HIV-negative MSM (IRR 4.1; 95% CI 1.3-13.2). The incidence rates of other high-risk HPV types ranged between 1.3-3.5/1000 PM in HIV-infected and 0.0-1.1/1000 PM in HIV-negative MSM. In multivariable analyses, HIV infection (adjusted hazard ratio [aHR] 3.8; 95% CI 2.3-6.2) and a higher number of recent oral sex partners (aHR 2.4 for ≥8 partners compared to ≤2; 95% CI 1.4-4.2) were associated with HPV incidence. Of the 111 baseline oral high-risk infections, 59 (53.2%) were cleared. In multivariable analyses, only a higher number of recent oral sex partners was associated with HPV clearance (adjusted odds ratio 3.4 for ≥8 compared to ≤2 partners; 95% CI 1.3-9.0).
CONCLUSIONS: The incidence rate of oral high-risk HPV infection was higher in HIV-infected MSM and in those with a higher number of recent oral sex partners. Just over half of the oral high-risk HPV infections at baseline were cleared after 12 months, with a higher likelihood of clearance among MSM reporting higher numbers of recent oral sex partners, but no difference by HIV status.
- AIDS-Related Opportunistic Infections/complications
- Cohort Studies
- Follow-Up Studies
- HIV Infections/complications
- Homosexuality, Male/statistics & numerical data
- Human papillomavirus 16/genetics
- Middle Aged
- Mouth Diseases/epidemiology
- Papillomavirus Infections/epidemiology
- Risk Factors
- Sexual Behavior/statistics & numerical data
- Sexual Partners
- Viral Load