Who accepts and who uses community-based secondary distribution HIV self-testing (HIVST) kits?: findings from the intervention arm of a cluster-randomized trial of HIVST distribution nested in four HPTN 071 (PopART) communities in Zambia

Bernadette Hensen, Albertus J Schaap, Chama Mulubwa, Sian Floyd, Kwame Shanaube, Mwelwa M Phiri, Virginia Bond, Chiti Bwalya, Musonda Simwinga, Sarah Fidler, Richard Hayes, Alwyn Mwinga, Helen Ayles

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Abstract

BACKGROUND: HPTN 071 (PopART) was a community-randomized trial of a universal testing-and-treatment intervention on HIV incidence at population level in Zambia and South Africa. In Zambia, a trial of community-based distribution of HIV self-testing (HIVST) kits, including secondary distribution, as an option for HIV-testing was nested within 4 PopART intervention communities. We used data from the intervention arm of the nested trial to measure levels of and factors associated with acceptance and use of secondary distribution HIVST kits.

METHODS: Community HIV care providers offered the PopART combination HIV-prevention intervention door-to-door, systematically visiting all households and enumerating all household members. From 1 February to 30 April 2017, individuals aged 16 years and older consenting to PopART were offered the option to HIV self-test, if eligible for HIV-testing services. Individuals aged 18 years and older who reported a partner absent during household visits were offered an HIVST kit for secondary distribution to this partner. We used two data sources to measure acceptance and use of secondary distribution HIVST kits.

RESULTS: Among 9105 individuals aged 18 years and older consenting to PopART, 9.1% (n = 825) accepted an HIVST kit for secondary distribution. Approximately 55.8% reported that the kit had been used. Women were more likely to accept, and men more likely to use, secondary distribution HIVST kits. Kits were more likely to be used by individuals aged 30+ and who had not participated in a previous round of PopART. Approximately 6.8% had a reactive result.

CONCLUSIONS: Community-based secondary distribution of HIVST kits reached men absent during community HIV care provider household visits and is a complement to facility- and community-based HIV-testing services, which often miss men.

Original languageEnglish
JournalJournal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes
Volume84
Issue number4
Pages (from-to)355-364
Number of pages10
ISSN1525-4135
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2020

Keywords

  • Adolescent
  • Adult
  • Anti-HIV Agents/therapeutic use
  • Delivery of Health Care
  • Diagnostic Tests, Routine/statistics & numerical data
  • Female
  • HIV Infections/diagnosis
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Mass Screening/methods
  • Middle Aged
  • Patient Compliance/statistics & numerical data
  • Self-Testing
  • Young Adult
  • Zambia

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