BACKGROUND: Bovine tuberculosis (BTB) is a widespread zoonosis in developing countries but has received little attention in sub-Saharan Africa, especially in Niger. Recent investigations confirmed the high incidence of the disease in cattle slaughtered in an abattoir in Niamey. The fact that most of the animals in which M. bovis has been identified were from the rural area of Torodi implied the existence of a probable source of BTB in this region. This study aimed to determine the prevalence of BTB infection in cattle and to identify risk factors for infection in human and cattle populations in Torodi. METHODS AND PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: A survey was carried out at the level of households keeping livestock (n = 51). The questionnaire was related to the potential risk factors and the presence of clinical signs of TB both in animals and humans. Comparative Intradermal Tuberculin Test was conducted to determine the TB status in cattle (n = 393). The overall apparent individual animal prevalence of tuberculin reactors was 3.6% (CI: 95%, 1.9-5.9), whereas the individual true prevalence was estimated at 0.8% (CI: 95%, 0.0-5.0). Using a multivariate logistic regression analysis and a classification tree analysis, the only household level risk factor that significantly influenced the presence of BTB in cattle was the presence of animals coughing in the herd (OR = 4.7, 95% CI: 1.12-19.71, p-value = 0.034). The lack of the practice of quarantine was borderline significant (OR = 4.2, 95% CI: 0.96-18.40, p-value = 0.056). CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: The study confirmed that BTB is endemic in cattle in Torodi and the risk of the transmission of the disease to humans is potentially high. For the control of the disease in livestock, slaughtering of infected animals and the compensation of the owners is needed. Collaboration between the veterinary and the medical sectors, in the diagnosis, monitoring, prevention and control of BTB is strongly encouraged.