BACKGROUND: We assessed human papillomavirus (HPV) seroconversion following anal and penile HPV infection in HIV-negative and HIV-infected men who have sex with men (MSM).
METHODS: MSM aged ≥18 years were recruited in Amsterdam, the Netherlands (2010-2011), and followed up semiannually. Antibodies against 7 high-risk HPV types in baseline and 12-month serum samples were tested using a multiplex immunoassay. Baseline, 6-, and 12-month anal and penile samples were tested for HPV DNA using the SPF10-PCR DEIA/LiPA25 system. Statistical analyses were performed using logistic regression with generalized estimating equations.
RESULTS: Of 644 MSM included in the analysis, 245 (38%) were HIV-infected. Median age was 38 years for HIV-negative and 47 years for HIV-infected MSM (P < 0.001). Seroconversion against ≥1 of the 7 HPV types was observed in 74 of 396 (19%) HIV-negative and 52 of 223 (23%) HIV-infected MSM at risk (P = 0.2). Incident [adjusted OR (aOR) 2.0; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.1-3.4] and persistent (aOR 3.7; 95% CI, 1.5-9.5) anal HPV infections were independently associated with type-specific seroconversion in HIV-negative MSM. In HIV-infected MSM, there was a nonsignificant positive association between penile HPV infection at any time point and seroconversion (aOR 1.7; 95% CI, 0.9-3.2).
CONCLUSIONS: Incident or persistent anal HPV infection was an independent determinant of seroconversion in HIV-negative MSM.
IMPACT: Our data support that seroresponse may vary per anatomic site and that persistent HPV infections are more likely to elicit a detectable humoral immune response.