The World Health Organization (WHO) has set the goal of gambiense-Human African trypanosomiasis (HAT) elimination as a public health problem for 2020 and interruption of transmission in humans for 2030. In this context, it is crucial to monitor progress towards these targets using accurate tools to assess the level of transmission in a given area. The aim of this study was to investigate the relevance of the immune trypanolysis test (TL) as a population-based bioassay to evaluate Trypanosoma brucei gambiense transmission in various epidemiological contexts. Significant correlations were observed between HAT endemicity levels and the percentage of TL-positive individuals in the population. TL therefore appears to be a suitable population-based biomarker of the intensity of transmission. In addition to being used as a tool to assess the HAT status at an individual level, assessing the proportion of TL positive individuals in the population appears as a promising and easy alternative to monitor the elimination of gambiense HAT in a given area.