We conducted a cross-sectional study from August 2003 to February 2004 to identify risk factors for bovine tuberculosis (BTB) in the Kafue basin of Zambia. We investigated a total of 106 herds of cattle for presence of BTB using the comparative intradermal tuberculin test (CITT) while an interviewer-administered questionnaire was used to gather epidemiological data on herd structure, management and grazing strategies. BTB prevalence at herd level was estimated and possible risk factors were investigated using the multiple logistic regression model. The true herd level prevalence of BTB was estimated at 49.8% (95% CI: 37.9, 61.7%). The logistic regression model showed that cattle herd BTB status was highly associated with area and husbandry practices. When compared to Kazungula, cattle herds in Blue Lagoon were more likely to test positive for BTB when other factors such as management practices were controlled (OR=10.5). In terms of grazing strategies, transhumant herds (TH) had higher odds (OR=3.0) of being positive compared to sedentary herds (OR=1.0). The results in this study provide preliminary information about potential risk factors that were found to be associated with BTB status in cattle.